Installed debian with gnome. Applet network manager, did not search for wireless access points, installed wicd - also there is no result. Through ifconfig, iwlist scan connected to wifi via the console, but despite this, the applet still did not display any networks.
As a result, in
/etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules and in
/etc/network/interfaces replaced the
/etc/network/interfaces name wlan0 with ath0 and it all worked. Why didn't wlan0 work? (By the way, the same problem was in ubuntu: in the console, the iwlist scan command did not work with wlan0.)