I want to know what are the varieties of this profession and what should a person learn in order to be a system administrator?
Closed due to the fact that off-topic participants LEQADA , Vladimir Glinskikh , torokhkun , Visman , Alex Nov 7 '15 at 7:48 .
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I would classify according to the different specifics of the work:
1.Enikeyshchik (no offense), office admin (in my opinion for a small office is the thing), who can do everything, and programs, and Linux, and Windows, and runs helps comrades :)
2. Customizers, comrades, who work exclusively with network equipment, and are divided into:
And so on, there may be a lot of them.
3. System auditors, a common practice abroad, which analyze the stability of the system in and out.
Actually, the system administrator is an employee of the enterprise who is responsible for:
- Organization and support of the enterprise information system
- Ensuring the safety and security of enterprise data
- (possible in 2) Perform systematic data backup
- Records management
You need to choose an area and work with it. Only each of these areas has sub-areas. Ideally, you should be able to do everything related to these areas.
- Installing and configuring OS: Linux, Windows (intelligent setting, but not installed and forgotten)
- Installation and configuration of Server OS, implementation of automation technologies, backups, DNS, HTTP, FTP, DB, Mail - servers
- Network configuration on OS, on active equipment
- Setting up routing, NAT
- Security settings based on OS built-in firewalls
- Configuring hardware firewalls (for example Juniper, Cisco, Check Point)
- Installing and configuring VPN (IKE, IPSec), VoIP (+ protection)
- Monitoring systems, IPS, IDS systems
The list is so long that for one person can not afford. Purely physically.
The main thing that a sysadmin must learn is responsibility. The main function of the administrator is to ensure the continuous operation of the IT infrastructure, technology is not so important.
Falling server is not "oh, damn, I forgot to put one tick." This can stop the work of tens and hundreds of people who will be sooooo angry. It is better to be able to administer one thing, but to know how to do it perfectly, so that all crashes, server reboots, etc. occurred during off-hours, and data on shared resources was never lost. 100,500 times I have seen students who print commands in the bachet faster than I can read them, but they all do not have toli mail toli dns all the time ... If everything will always work for you, you will be the best :)
In general, you guys do not go to the admins. Administration by and large is just a service, the attendants of what the programmers wrote. Undoubtedly adminstvo it is very important, but if you like computers and want to work with them - try all the same programming.
Usually they are classified by occupation (I'm afraid to make a mistake with the names, but I'll try):
- network engineer (his case is the whole network, ie switches, routers, vitukha, sockets)
- Security engineer (firewalls sometimes proxy server, antivirus, HIPS, restriction of access to information, encryption, etc.)
- Admin servers (usually linuksoid and raises them on FreeBSD, his job is maintaining upkeep and backups)
- Admin domain (supports AD, brings users, etc.)
- Administrator AO (I don’t know what to call it, it runs everywhere and installs Windows, programs, solves minor problems, sometimes it has a server to automate its work)
- Technical support (sometimes they are recorded here, all work is to help with working with users, sometimes combined with the previous one)
Well, to be a good admin you have to love it. Computers, broaching Vituha, automation of routine. When it is a pleasure, the quality of work, even with not knowing the little things, rises many times, but the little things are learned in the process.
Alas (unfortunately or not some colleagues), system administration has completely changed in its essence. This has long been (unless of course we are talking about a serious enterprise) not "running", "setting" Windows or Linux, the room service of switches of routers, and the more so that the pair and sockets. I will highlight 2 main aspects
FUNDAMENTAL KNOWLEDGE (AND PRACTICE TO APPLY IN PRACTICE) practically ALL network protocols and services (as a craft application is the basis for understanding their work in target software products — web server-opera system-application software) Simplifying it can be said that today it is necessary not to STOP but TO UNDERSTAND how the whole network infrastructure works.
THE SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENT OF THE OPERATED APPLICATIONS is no longer the banal skill of writing scripts, queries, miniprogs to get results, but above all, a comprehensive study and knowledge of the BASES (sometimes often more) of programming languages, interpreters, software technologies - wherever you go everywhere C ++, PHP, Java, Ajax, various DBMS, WEB-technologies and there is no end to it. Monitoring systems alone require serious knowledge of all of the above, and there is nothing to say about security systems, especially from insiders (for example, in banks) ...
But in general, all this somehow begins to intersect --- it is difficult today to imagine a programmer who doesn’t understand anything in operating systems (10 years ago, this was practically the norm), a system administrator who is not able to write banal HTML-text or script in PHP, PL, PowerShell, Vba. But the most amazing thing in all of this is THANK YOU TO GOD !!!! - Assembler as it was and remains an assembler ---- that's when here and there is something wrong, yes YES !!!!! :))
In my vyaglyad usual sis. the admin must first know the subject area of the department, the company, which he supports and the set of software that is used in his work.
All these classifications. )
I install throughout the office system (Windows.), I configure the software, the network I also do, as described above: switches, routers, and everything connected with it. Service HMOs and Bestzvit. Security yet.
In general, everything that can be called administration.
Just call me all a programmer. )